Piglet nasal microbiota at weaning may influence the development of Glässer’s disease during the rearing period
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Background: The microbiota, the ensemble of microorganisms on a particular body site, has been extensively studied during the last few years, and demonstrated to influence the development of many diseases. However, these studies focused mainly on the human digestive system, while the populations in
the respiratory tract have been poorly assessed, especially in pigs. The nasal mucosa of piglets is colonized by an array of bacteria, many of which are unknown. Among the early colonizers, Haemophilus parasuis also has clinical importance, since it is also the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease. This disease produces economical losses in all the countries with pig production, and the factors influencing its development are not totally understood. Hence, the purpose of this work was to characterize the nasal microbiota composition of piglets, and its possible role in Glässer’s disease development. Results: Seven farms fromSpain (4 with Glässer’s disease and 3 control farms without any respiratory disease) and three farms from UK (all control farms) were studied. Ten piglets from each farm were sampled at 3–4 weeks of age before weaning. The total DNA extracted from nasal swabs was used to amplify the 16S RNA gene for sequencing in Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing data was quality filtered and analyzed using QIIME software. The diversity of the nasal microbiota was low in comparison with other body sites, showing a maximum number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per pig of 1,603, clustered in five phyla. Significant differences were found at various taxonomical levels, when the microbiota was compared regarding the farm health status. Healthy status was associated to higher species richness and diversity, and UK farms demonstrated the highest diversity. Conclusions: The composition of the nasal microbiota of healthy piglets was uncovered and different phylotypes were shown to be significantly altered in animals depending on the clinical status of the farm of origin. Several OTUs at genus level were identified over-represented in piglets from control farms, indicating their potential as probiotics. Although we provide relevant data, fully metagenomic approaches could give light on the genes and metabolic pathways involved in the roles of the nasal microbiota to prevent respiratory diseases.
Is part ofBmc Genomics, 2016, vol. 17, p. 404-418
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