Low carbon and low embodied energy materials in buildings: A review
This paper presents a review of the literature on low carbon and low embodied energy materials in buildings. Embodied energy is defined and discussed vs. operating energy of buildings and its growing importance due to the implementation of the Energy Building Performance Directive (EBPD) in Europeas example. The difficulty of measuring embodied energy and the difficulty in comparing published data are highlighted, showing an example of proposed new methodology found in the literature. Relationship between embodied energy and embodied CO2 or CO2 footprint is defined. Different materials defined in the literature as low carbon materials are referred, such as cement and concrete, wood, bricks, rammed earth and sandstone. The review shows the research efforts found in the literature to develop new materials with less embodied energy. Finally, the effect of material substitution in the embodied energy of a building is reviewed in the literature.
Journal or Serie
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2013, núm. 23, p. 536–542