Review on phase change materials (PCMs) for cold thermal energy storage applications
Farid, Mohammed M.
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Thermal energy storage (TES) is a technology with a high potential for different thermal applications. It is well known that TES could be the most appropriate way and method to correct the gap between the demand and supply of energy and therefore it has become a very attractive technology. In this paper, a review of TES for cold storage applications using solid–liquid phase change materials has been carried out. The scope of the work was focussed on different aspects: phase change materials (PCMs), encapsulation, heat transfer enhancement, and the effect of storage on food quality. Materials used by researchers as potential PCM at low temperatures (less than 20 C) are summarized and some of their thermophysical properties are reported. Over 88 materials that can be used as PCM, and about 40 commercially available PCM have been listed. Problems in long term stability of the materials, such as corrosion, phase segregation, stability under extended cycling or subcooling are discussed. Heat transfer is considered both from theoretical and experimental point of view and the different methods of PCM encapsulation are reviewed. Many applications of PCM at low temperature can be found, such as, ice storage, conservation and transport of temperature sensitive materials and in air conditioning, cold stores, and refrigerated trucks.