Clinical anatomy of the head region of Gwembe valley dwarf goat in Zambia
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In this study, a total of 30 skulls of the Gwembe Valley Dwarf (GVD) goat were used. Clinical anatomical measurements for 12 parts of the skull were made. Additionally, the data obtained have been compared with those carried out on West African Dwarf (WAD) and Markhoz goats. The distance from the facial
tuberosity to the infraorbital canal and from the latter to the lateral alveolar root were 2.06±0.14 cm and 1.13±0.11 cm, respectively. The distance from the lateral alveolar root to the mental foramen was 1.58±0.19 cm and from the mental foramen to the caudal mandibular border was 9.26±0.49 cm. In addition, the length and the maximum height of mandibles were 11.24±0.52 cm and 6.64±0.44 cm, respectively. The distance from the caudal border of mandible to below the mandibular foramen was 1.21±0.08 cm, while distance from the mandibular foramen to the base of the mandible, the caudal border of the mandible to the level of the mandibular foramen and mandibular foramen to the mandibular angle were 2.35±0.26 cm, 1.10±0.07 cm and 2.18±0.19 cm, respectively. According to our findings, the clinical anatomy values of the head region in this breed were more comparable to WAD and Markhoz goat. These results are of clinical importance and will aid in regional nerve blocks of the infraorbital, mental and mandibular nerves useful during head injuries, surgical operations involving the lips and dental extraction in this breed.