Glutaredoxins in fungi
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Glutaredoxins (GRXs) can be subdivided into two subfamilies: dithiol GRXs with the CPY/FC active site motif, and monothiol GRXs with the CGFS motif. Both subfamilies share a thioredoxin-fold structure. Monothiol GRXs exist with a single Grx domain while others have a thioredoxin-like domain (Trx) and one or more Grx domains in tandem. Most fungi have both dithiol and monothiol GRXs with different subcellular locations. GRX-like molecules also exist in fungi that separate in one residue from one of the canonical active site motifs. Additionally, Omega-class glutathione transferases are active as GRXs. Among fungi, the GRXs more extensively studied are those from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism contains two dithiol GRXs (ScGrx1 and ScGrx2) with partially overlapping functions in defence against oxidative stress. In this function, they cooperate with glutathione transferases Gtt1 and Gtt2. While ScGrx1 is cytosolic, two pools exist for ScGrx2, a major one at the cytosol and a minor one at mitocondria. On the other hand, S. cerevisiae cells have two monothiol GRXs with the Trx-Grx structure (ScGrx3 and ScGrx4) that locate at the nucleus and probably regulate the activity of transcription factors such as Aft1, and one monothiol glutaredoxin with the Grx structure (ScGrx5) that localizes as the mitochondria matrix, where it participates in the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters. The function of yeast Grx5 seems to be conserved along the evolutionary scale.
Is part ofPhotosynthesis research, 2006, vol. 86, núm. 2-3, p. 127-140
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Rodríguez-Manzaneque Martínez, María Teresa; Tamarit Sumalla, Jordi; Bellí i Martínez, Gemma; Ros Salvador, Joaquim; Herrero Perpiñán, Enrique (American Society for Cell Biology, 2002)Yeast cells contain a family of three monothiol glutaredoxins: Grx3, 4, and 5. Absence of Grx5 leads to constitutive oxidative damage, exacerbating that caused by external oxidants. Phenotypic defects associated with the ...
Structure-function analysis of yeast Grx5 monothiol glutaredoxin defines essential amino acids for the function of the protein Bellí i Martínez, Gemma; Polaina, Julio; Tamarit Sumalla, Jordi; Torre Ruiz, M. A. de la; Rodríguez Manzanaque, Maria Teresa; Ros Salvador, Joaquim; Herrero Perpiñán, Enrique (The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2002)Grx5 defines a family of yeast monothiol glutaredox- ins that also includes Grx3 and Grx4. All three proteins display significant sequence homology with proteins found from bacteria to humans. Grx5 is involved in ...
Tamarit Sumalla, Jordi; Bellí i Martínez, Gemma; Cabiscol Català, Elisa; Herrero Perpiñán, Enrique; Ros Salvador, Joaquim (The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2003)Grx5 is a yeast mitochondrial protein involved in iron- sulfur biogenesis that belongs to a recently described family of monothiolic glutaredoxin-like proteins. No member of this family has been biochemically charac- terized ...