Assessment of insecticide resistance in eggs and neonate larvae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
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Spanish Cydia pomonella (L.) field populations have developed resistance to several insecticide groups. Diagnostic concentrations were established as the LC90 calculated on a susceptible strain (S_Spain) for five and seven insecticides and tested on eggs and neonate larvae field populations, respectively.
The three most relevant enzymatic detoxification systems (mixed-function oxidases (MFO), glutathione S-tranferases (GST) and esterases (EST)) were studied for neonate larvae. In eggs, 96% of the field populations showed a significantly lower efficacy when compared with the susceptible strain (S_Spain) and the most effective insecticides were fenoxycarb and thiacloprid. In neonate larvae, a significant loss of susceptibility to the insecticides was detected. Flufenoxuron, azinphos-methyl and phosmet showed the lowest efficacy, while lambda-cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl showed the highest. Biochemical assays showed that the most important enzymatic system involved in insecticide detoxification was MFO, with highest enzymatic activity ratios (5.1–16.6 for neonates from nine field populations). An enhanced GST and EST activities was detected in one field population, with enzymatic activity ratios of threefold and fivefold for GST and EST, respectively, when compared with the susceptible strain. The insecticide bioassays showed that the LC90 used were effective as diagnostic concentrations. Measures of MFO activity alongside bioassays with insecticide diagnostic concentrations could be used as tools for monitoring insecticide resistance in neonate larvae of C. pomonella.