Review. Characterization and selection of hexaploid wheats containing resistance to Heterodera avenae or Mayetiola destructor introgressed from Aegilops
Delibes de Castro, Ángeles
Moreno Vázquez, S.
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Cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) and Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) are two major pests affecting wheat crops worldwide including important cereal areas of Spain. Aegilops ventricosa and Ae. triuncialis were used as donors in a strategy to introduce resistance genes (RG) for these pests in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two 42 chromosomes introgression lines have been derived from Ae. ventricosa: H-93-8 and H-93-33 carrying genes Cre2 and H27 conferring resistance to CCN and HF, respectively. Line TR-3531 with 42 chromosomes has been derived from Ae. triuncialis and carries RGs conferring resistance for CCN (Cre7) and for HF (H30). Alien material has been incorporated in lines H-93 by chromosomal substitution and recombination, while in line TR-3531 homoeologous recombination affecting small DNA fragments has played a major role. It has been demonstrated that Cre2, Cre7, H27 and H30 are major single dominant genes and not allelic of other previously described RGs. Biochemical and molecular-biology studies of the defense mechanism triggered by Cre2 and Cre7 have revealed specific induction of peroxidase and other antioxidant enzymes. In parallel to these basic studies advanced lines carrying resistance genes for CNN and/or HF have been developed. Selection was done using molecular markers for eventually «pyramiding» resistance genes. Several isozyme and RAPD markers have been described and, currently, new markers based on transposable elements and NBS-LRR sequences are being developed. At present, two advanced lines have already been included at the Spanish Catalogue of Commercial Plant Varieties.