- ItemOpen AccessScarce population genetic differentiation but substantial spatiotemporal phenotypic variation of water‑use efficiency in Pinus sylvestris at its western distribution range(Springer, 2018-10-23) Santini, Filippo; Ferrio Díaz, Juan Pedro; Hereş, A. M.; Notivol, Eduardo; Piqué i Nicolau, Míriam; Serrano Endolz, Luis; Shestakova, Tatiana A.; Sin Casas, Esther; Vericat, P.; Voltas Velasco, JordiWater and carbon fluxes in forests are largely related to leaf gas exchange physiology varying across spatiotemporal scales and modulated by plant responses to environmental cues. We quantified the relevance of genetic and phenotypic variation of intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi, ratio of net photosynthesis to stomatal conductance of water) in Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the Iberian Peninsula as inferred from tree-ring carbon isotopes. Inter-population genetic variation, evaluated in a provenance trial comprising Spanish and German populations, was low and relevant only at continental scale. In contrast, phenotypic variation, evaluated in natural stands (at spatial level) and by tree-ring chronologies (at temporal inter-annual level), was important and ten- and threefold larger than the population genetic variance, respectively. These results points to preponderance of plastic responses dominating variability in WUEi for this species. Spatial phenotypic variation in WUEi correlated negatively with soil depth (r = − 0.66; p < 0.01), while temporal phenotypic variation was mainly driven by summer precipitation. At the spatial level, WUEi could be scaled-up to ecosystem-level WUE derived from remote sensing data by accounting for soil water-holding capacity (r = 0.63; p < 0.01). This outcome demonstrates a direct influence of the variation of leaf-level WUEi on ecosystem water and carbon balance differentiation. Our findings highlight the contrasting importance of genetic variation (negligible) and plastic responses in WUEi (large, with changes of up to 33% among sites) on determining carbon and water budgets at stand and ecosystem scales in a widespread conifer such as Pinus sylvestris.
- ItemOpen AccessPhenotypic plasticity and climatic adaptation in an Atlantic maritime pine breeding population(Springer Verlag, 2012) Mata, Raúl de la; Voltas Velasco, Jordi; Zas, RafaelContext: Pinus pinaster Ait. is found in the Iberian Peninsula under Mediterranean and Atlantic conditions. Both climates encounter each other in Galicia (NW Spain), where two bioclimatic regions can be differentiated: coastal and inland. A breeding program was launched in the coastal area, with two breeding and deployment areas delimited. Aims: We analyse plasticity patterns across regions in a coastal breeding population to assess the suitability of current breeding areas and how genetic material will likely respond to future climate. Methods: Total height at ages 3 and 8 years was assessed in 16 trials established along the coast and in inner Galicia. Clustering of environments with similar genotypic performance, family sensitivities to climatic factors and stability analyses were performed. Results: Sizeable genetic variation in plasticity was found among families, and crossover genotype-by-environment interactions were detected within and between regions. It was unfeasible to regionalize Galicia into alternative areas of stable genotypic performance. Only the cold regime was found to noticeably underlie the array of phenotypic responses to changing environmental conditions. Conclusion:s Results: suggest that previous delimitation in two breeding areas is pointless and indicate reduced effects of a changing climate towards Mediterranean conditions on decreasing population fitness.
- ItemOpen AccessDendroSync: An R package to unravel synchrony patterns in tree-ring networks(Elsevier, 2017-12-15) Alday, Josu G.; Shestakova, Tatiana A.; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Voltas Velasco, JordiSpatial synchrony refers to the presence of a common signal for a time-varying characteristic that, in dendrosciences, is shared among tree-ring chronologies from a particular area. Analysis and interpretation of synchrony patterns in tree-ring networks is currently limited by: (i) the requirement for flexible modelling of complex correlations and heteroscedastic errors and (ii) the availability of ready-to-use open software to fulfil this task. We present an R package (DendroSync) that facilitates estimating and plotting synchrony patterns for pre-defined groups. The package has been devised to work with traits derived from tree rings (e.g. ring-width), but other data types are also suitable. It combines variance-covariance mixed modelling with functions that quantify the degree to which tree-ring chronologies contain a common signal over a fixed time period. It also estimates temporal changes in synchrony using a moving window algorithm. The functionality and usage of DendroSync are illustrated using a simple example.
- ItemOpen AccessIntraspecific variation in the use of water sources by the circum-Mediterranean conifer Pinus halepensis(Wiley, 2015-07-21) Voltas Velasco, Jordi; Lucabaugh, D.; Chambel, Maria Regina; Ferrio Díaz, Juan PedroSummary The relevance of interspecific variation in the use of plant water sources has been recognized in drought-prone environments. By contrast, the characterization of intraspecific differences in water uptake patterns remains elusive, although preferential access to particular soil layers may be an important adaptive response for species along aridity gradients. Stable water isotopes were analysed in soil and xylem samples of 56 populations of the drought-avoidant conifer Pinus halepensis grown in a common garden test. We found that most populations reverted to deep soil layers as the main plant water source during seasonal summer droughts. More specifically, we detected a clear geographical differentiation among populations in water uptake patterns even under relatively mild drought conditions (early autumn), with populations originating from more arid regions taking up more water from deep soil layers. However, the preferential access to deep soil water was largely independent of aboveground growth. Our findings highlight the high plasticity and adaptive relevance of the differential access to soil water pools among Aleppo pine populations. The observed ecotypic patterns point to the adaptive relevance of resource investment in deep roots as a strategy towards securing a source of water in dry environments for P. halepensis
- ItemOpen AccessA roadmap to disentangling ecogeographical patterns of spatial synchrony in dendrosciences(Springer Verlag, 2017-12-30) Shestakova, Tatiana A.; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Voltas Velasco, JordiThe concept of spatial synchrony in ecology refers to the presence of coordinated time fluctuations in certain characteristics that can be observed in plant and animal communities inhabiting an area. It is a well-known phenomenon common to virtually every taxon, but comparatively little attention has been given to the study of the temporal coherence of forest tree performance across biogeographical gradients. In forest ecosystems, tree growth dynamics is primarily driven by climatic variability (i.e., the Moran effect). Due to rapid climate change, trees are increasingly pushed to their physiological limits up to the level that many populations are facing immediate risk of extinction. The characterization of synchrony patterns in tree growth can provide clues on the relevance of emerging climatic threats on forests, as new combinations of precipitation and temperature are entraining tree performance worldwide. In this regard, comprehensive and systematic approaches to analyse spatiotemporal dynamics of tree growth are needed. Here, we present a methodology for disentangling and interpreting how the variability and common signal strength of tree growth (or other traits) are structured in tree-ring networks. It is grounded on mixed modelling principles and broadens well-known theoretical principles in dendrosciences. Based on this approach, we describe the essential properties of spatial synchrony in tree growth at multiple geographical scales. We also discuss the potential of this methodology to discern early warning signals of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems.