Browsing Articles publicats (Grup de Recerca en Malherbologia i Ecologia Vegetal) by Subject "Barley"
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- ItemOpen AccessDifferent Ground Vegetation Cover Management Systems to Manage Cynodon dactylon in an Irrigated Vineyard(MDPI, 2020-06-25) Valencia-Gredilla, Francisco; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Juárez Escario, Alejandro; Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiGround cover management in vineyards in Spain is focused on minimizing soil erosion and compaction. Such practices have influenced the weed community structure in the inter-rows, contributing to the spread of the high noxious weed Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. This fact highlights the need for further investigation of the interaction between ground cover practices and weed control techniques. In this study, the effect of four different ground cover managements (M) in the inter-rows on C. dactylon population dynamics (changes in coverage and frequency) was assessed over three seasons (2015–2017): (M1) a no-till spontaneous vegetation ground cover managed by shredding; (M2) a no-till spontaneous vegetation ground cover managed by shredding plus herbicide application, (M3) tilled soil and spontaneous vegetation growing; and (M4) tilled soil and a barley cover crop seeded (Hordeum vulgare L.). Cynodon dactylon and the other weeds responded differently to the various weed control methods. After three seasons, the barley cover crop was the most efficient management system to control C. dactylon and other weeds. Final soil cover in barley cover crop and tilled soil with spontaneous vegetation were 0.5% and 1.1%, respectively, compared to 3.7% and 7.7% obtained by spontaneous vegetation shredded with and without herbicide application, respectively. In addition, total weed frequency varied from 9.7% for barley cover crop to 45.8% for spontaneous vegetation only shredded. Weed community composition changed due to the pressure exerted by each management and the adaptive strategy of the different species. This study highlights the importance of knowledge of how vegetation management influences weed flora to improve the sustainability of wine grape production systems.
- ItemOpen AccessEffects of crop and weed densities on the interactions between barley and Lolium rigidum in several Mediterranean locations(Institut national de la recherche agronomique (França), 2003) Izquierdo i Figarola, Jordi; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Gill, GurjeetThe effects of both barley and Lolium rigidum densities on weed growth and spike production and on crop yield were examined in five field experiments carried out in the Mediterranean drylands of Spain and Western Australia. The aim was to check the consistency of the competitiveness of the crop in different environmental and management conditions. L. rigidum reduced barley yields in most of the experiments (between 0 and 85%), the number of ears per m2 being the most affected. It was found that increasing the barley seeding rate did not reduce the crop losses but did limit weed biomass (between 5 and 61%) and spike production (between 24 and 85%). The variability observed in crop yield losses between sites and seasons was related to rainfall at the beginning of the season. The most sensitive component of yield to weed competition was the number of ears per plant.
- ItemOpen AccessSpatial and temporal stability of weed patches in cereal fields under direct drilling and harrow tillage(MDPI, 2020-03-25) Izquierdo i Figarola, Jordi; Milne, Alice; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Torra Farré, Joel; Webster, R. (Richard); Baraibar Padró, BàrbaraThe adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) techniques by farmers is changing the dynamics of weed communities in cereal fields and so potentially their spatial distribution. These changes can challenge the use of site-specific weed control, which is based on the accurate location of weed patches for spraying. We studied the effect of two types of CA (direct drilling and harrow-tilled to 20 cm) on weed patches in a three-year survey in four direct-drilled and three harrow-tilled commercial fields in Catalonia (North-eastern Spain). The area of the ground covered by weeds (hereafter called “weed cover”) was estimated at 96 to 122 points measured in each year in each field, in 50 cm × 50 cm quadrats placed in a 10 m × 10 m grid in spring. Bromus diandrus, Lolium rigidum, and Papaver rhoeas were the main weed species. The weed cover and degree of aggregation for all species varied both between and within fields, regardless of the kind of tillage. Under both forms of soil management all three were aggregated in elongated patterns in the direction of traffic. Bromus was generally more aggregated than Lolium, and both were more aggregated than Papaver. Patches were stable over time for only two harrow-tilled fields with Lolium and one direct-drilled field with Bromus, but not in the other fields. Spatial stability of the weeds was more pronounced in the direction of traffic. Herbicide applications, crop rotation, and traffic seem to affect weed populations strongly within fields, regardless of the soil management. We conclude that site-specific herbicides can be applied to control these species because they are aggregated, although the patches would have to be identified afresh in each season.