Browsing Any: 2019 Núm. extra: 4 by Author "Hannibal, Joseph T."
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- ItemOpen AccessBringing millstones to America: 19th century use of Norwgian mica-schist millstones in the United States(Universitat de Lleida. Departament d'Història. Secció d'Arqueologia, Prehistòria i Història Antiga, 2019) Hannibal, Joseph T.Norwegian mica-schist millstones are preserved at two sites in the upper Midwest of the United States, the Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum in Iowa, and Beckman Mill in Wisconsin. Based on their mineral composition, the stone for these millstones was quarried at two classic Norwegian mica-schist millstone quarry regions, Hyllestad and Selbu. These millstones were brought to the American Midwest at a time when commercial mills were scarce and when wheat was a key crop.
- ItemOpen AccessWidespread North American ocuurence of millstones made of imported French chert (French buhr) containing charophytes(Universitat de Lleida. Departament d'Història. Secció d'Arqueologia, Prehistòria i Història Antiga, 2019) Hannibal, Joseph T.Fossil charophytes belonging to the genus Gyrogona can be used to distinguish chert millstones made of French buhr (pierre meulière) from millstones made of domestic North American cherts. The occurrence of the charophytes Gyrogona medicaginula Lamarck and Gyrogona cf. G. medicaginula in millstones imported from France has been previously documented for Massachusetts, Vermont, and Ohio in the United States. Additional localities with millstones containing Gyrogona are documented in this paper for the states of Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Virginia, and Wisconsin in the United States, and in the Province of Ontario in Canada. These widespread occurrences demonstrate the utility of charophytes as indicators of provenance of stone used for millstones. The geologic age and depositional environment (marine) of chert-bearing beds known to have been used for manufacture of millstones in North America are also noted.