Browsing Working Papers (Economia i Empresa) by Author "Salvador Figueras, Manuel"
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- ItemOpen AccessAnálisis mediante ratios financieros de la propiedad bancaria en los nuevos miembros de la UE(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2011) Moreno Gené, Jordi; Gallizo Larraz, José Luis; Salvador Figueras, ManuelEl objetivo de este trabajo es analizar como ha evolucionado y los efectos que el tipo de propiedad tiene sobre el desempeño de los bancos en aquellos países de la Europa Central y del Este, que en los últimos años han experimentado con gran intensidad el proceso de integración europea. Con este fin, hemos analizado 242 bancos correspondientes a 12 países (10 nuevos miembros de la UE y 2 en fase de negociación). Para verificar la existencia de un efecto derivado del tipo de propiedad, analizamos las dimensiones de la eficiencia bancaria, rentabilidad, costes, e intermediación, mediante la aplicación de distintas técnicas, tanto paramétricas como no paramétricas. Los resultados muestran la existencia de ciertos efectos derivados del tipo de propiedad. Así, entre los principales resultados, destaca que los bancos privatizados tienden a presentar unos niveles de rentabilidad superiores a los presentados por otros tipos de propiedad, mientras que a su vez, los bancos de origen extranjero son los que de media presentan unos menores niveles de costes, si bien esta diferencia no es estadísticamente significativa. Analizamos también la importancia que supone la presencia de un inversor estratégico en la propiedad de los bancos, obteniendo una mejoría que si bien no es significativa en los ratios de rentabilidad, si lo es en relación a los gastos generales de gestión.
- ItemOpen AccessFinancial convergence in transition economies: EU enlargement(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2009) Gallizo Larraz, José Luis; Saladrigues Solé, Ramon; Salvador Figueras, ManuelThis paper analyses the financial impact of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) to include 10 new Central and Eastern European Nations (CEEN) on firms’ business and financial structures. To this end, we employ quantitative analytic techniques and financial ratios. In this context, we hope to discover whether firms in the new EU member States tend to converge with business in the Europe of the 15 in terms of the structure of firms’ financial statements. We examine the extent to which the increasing integration of the former may foster the convergence of productive structures. The methodology followed consists of an analysis of the evolution of 12 financial ratios in a sample of firms obtained from the AMADEUS data base. To that end, we perform a Dynamic Factor Analysis that identifies the determining factors of the joint evolution of deviations in the financial ratios with respect to the average value of firms in the EU-15. This analysis allows us to analyse the convergence in each of the CEEN nations with respect to the EU-15.
- ItemOpen AccessOptimal capital structure: a trade-off model and its empirical testing(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2012) Salvador Figueras, Manuel; Vendrell Vilanova, AnnaIn the present research we have set forth a new, simple, Trade-Off model that would allow us to calculate how much debt and, by default, how much equity a company should have, using easily available information and calculating the cost of debt dynamically on the basis of the effect that the capital structure of the company has on the risk of bankruptcy; in an attempt to answer this question. The proposed model has been applied to the companies that make up the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) in 2007. We have used consolidated financial data from 1996 to 2006, published by Bloomberg. We have used simplex optimization method to find the debt level that maximizes firm value. Then, we compare the estimated debt with real debt of companies using statistical nonparametric Mann-Whitney. The results indicate that 63% of companies do not show a statistically significant difference between the real and the estimated debt.
- ItemOpen AccessOwnership change and banking efficiency in the new EU members(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2013) Moreno Gené, Jordi; Gallizo Larraz, José Luis; Salvador Figueras, ManuelThe aim of this study is to analyze how European integration and, especially, changes in ownership, has affected banking efficiency in Central and Eastern European countries which have recently experimented this process more intensely. Using a stochastic frontier approach (SFA) applied to panel data, we have estimated bank efficiency levels in a sample of 189 banks from 12 countries during the period 2000 to 2008 and we have analyzed the influence of some bank characteristics on these efficiency levels. The results show that European integration has significantly improved the cost efficiency of banks in these countries but profit efficiency has significantly decreased. We have found very small differences between different ownership types and only a very small impact of foreign ownership on cost efficiency, showing that the entry of foreign ownership is not enough to explain the significant variations in banking efficiency after the accession.
- ItemOpen AccessThe persistence of return on assets: differences between industries and differences between firms(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2013) Saladrigues Solé, Ramon; Gallizo Larraz, José Luis; Gargallo Valero, Pilar; Salvador Figueras, ManuelThis study offers a statistical analysis of the persistence of annual profits across a sample of firms from different European Union (EU) countries. To this end, a Bayesian dynamic model has been used which enables the annual behaviour of those profits to be broken down into a permanent structural component on the one hand and a transitory component on the other, while also distinguishing between general effects affecting the industry as a whole to which each firm belongs and specific effects affecting each firm in particular. This break down enables the relative importance of those fundamental components to be evaluated. The data analysed come from a sample of 23,293 firms in EU countries selected from the AMADEUS data-base. The period analysed ran from 1999 to 2007 and 21 sectors were analysed, chosen in such a way that there was a sufficiently large number of firms in each country*sector combination for the industry effects to be estimated accurately enough for meaningful comparisons to be made by sector and country. The analysis has been conducted by sector and by country from a Bayesian perspective, thus making the study more flexible and realistic since the estimates obtained do not depend on asymptotic results. In general terms, the study finds that, although the industry effects are significant, more important are the specific effects. That importance varies depending on the sector or the country in which the firm carries out its activity. The influence of firm effects accounts for more than 90% of total variation and display a significantly lower degree of persistence, with adjustment speeds oscillating around 51.1%. However, this pattern is not homogeneous but depends on the sector and country analysed. Industry effects have a more marginal importance, being significantly more persistent, with adjustment speeds oscillating around 10% with this degree of persistence being more homogeneous at both country and sector levels.