Browsing Articles publicats (Grup de Recerca A3 Leather Innovation Center) by Author "A3 Leather Innovation Center"
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- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of the environmental impacts of waterproofing versus conventional vegetable tanning process - A life cycle analysis study(Elsevier, 2021-10-11) Baquero Armans, Grau; Sorolla, Sílvia; Cuadros Domènech, Rosa; Ollé i Otero, Lluís; Bacardit i Dalmases, Anna; A3 Leather Innovation CenterWaterproofed vegetable leather is desired for its 'greenness' in front of chromium-tanned waterproofed leather. However, conferring waterproofing capabilities to vegetable tanned leather maintaining light color and a soft touch is a fact of great concern for leather goods producers. Sustainable and technical requirements are currently demanded by high-quality brands in order to pass the threshold established by Leather Working Group (LWG) initiatives to earn their environmental audit seal. The research work has focused on testing various mineral salts and hydrophobic products compatible with vegetable tanned leather. According to the obtained results, acrylic copolymers along with zirconium salts are necessary to achieve the desired leather properties. The present study provides the environmental comparison of a new vegetable tanning process to give waterproofing capabilities with the conventional vegetable tanning process. The comparison comprises both wastewater analysis and environmental impacts in a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. The paper also outlines the comparison using different life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. Further, the study provides specific data on leather vegetable tanning processes. Comparative analysis has been focused on the two diverging stages for both conventional and waterproofing vegetable tanning processes, namely retanning and fatliquoring. Conventional process environmental impacts are lower than waterproofing process impacts according to LCA methodology. However, wastewater analysis shows no major differences between both processes. Main contributors to these results are the zirconium salts, dispersing agents and acrylic copolymers used along with an increase in energy consumption due to processing times. Alternative methods used in the impact assessment lead to similar results, revealing no major differences in the comparative results between methods in this case.
- ItemOpen AccessOlipo-wet olive pomace, a new renewable source for leather retanning(ICAMS, 2020-10) Gaidau, Carmen; Stanca, Maria; Simion, Demetra; Niculescu, Olga; Alexe, Cosmin-Andrei; Casas, Concepció; Bacardit i Dalmases, Anna; Tonea, Stoica; Paun, GabrielaThe aim of OLIPO project is to find suitable extraction methods for an important waste of olive oil production, wet olive pomace, in view of reclaiming it as tanning and retanning material, alternative to petroleum origin materials. The total volume of wet olive pomace in Mediterranean countries where olive crops are traditional is about 80% of processed olives and is the result of a two-phase continuous extraction process. Wet olive pomace is rich in polyphenolic compounds, fats, tannins, non-tannins, possible to be extracted, concentrated, chemical processed in view of developing a new tanning product. The use of new renewable materials from oil industry as biobased tanning material for leather industry represents an important step in lowering carbon footprint of both sectors and complies with circular economy principles. The antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of olive oil pomace can be exploited in view of increasing the efficiency of the new product. The paper presents the characterisation of four kinds of wet olive pomace wastes, water and water-organic solvent extracts as tanning materials in order to select the methods for a new tanning material elaboration and testing on leathers in retanning processes.
- ItemOpen AccessStudy of the impact on occupational health of the use of polyaziridine in leather finishing compared with a new epoxy acrylic self-crosslinking polymer(Elsevier, 2021-02-16) Ollé i Otero, Lluís; Frías Álvarez, Aroha; Sorolla, Sílvia; Cuadros Domènech, Rosa; Bacardit i Dalmases, AnnaThe leather industry needs innovative products to meet the continued demands of the global market. To achieve a good performance in the finishing operation, crosslinking of the polymers used in this leather production stage is necessary. These crosslinkers are irritating and harmful. This study is based on the synthesis of functionalized acryl polymers with epoxy groups to improve the properties of the leather finishing to avoid the use of external crosslinkers, and consequently; harmful products for health and the environment will not be necessary. Likewise, the affectation in the health of workers exposed to crosslinker has been investigated when the leather finish is carried out. To do this research, a clinical analysis has been carried out prior authorization of the workers. The study demonstrates a good performance finishing avoiding the use of crosslinkers. In addition, it has been determined that molecular fragments of the decomposition of polyaziridine are present in the urine of one of the employees. Although the human metabolism may metabolize these polyaziridine fragments being non detectable in the urine samples, a positive result was obtained in the analysis by GC-MSD of the urine, and therefore; it could affect the health of this employee.
- ItemOpen AccessSynthesis of polyurethanes with low volatile organic Compounds content for upholstery and automotive Articles(ICAMS, 2020-10) Bacardit i Dalmases, Anna; Sorolla, Sílvia; Casas, Concepció; Conde Mateos, Mireia; Ollé i Otero, LluísThe manufacture of upholstery and automotive articles is linked to the release of Volatile Organic Compounds (hereinafter VOCs) during their manufacture, which have short and long-term effects on the health of users and the environment. In the leather sector, around 40 kg of VOCs are generated per 1000 kg of raw skin. This research work has focused on the synthesis of new and more sustainable urethane-based polymers that, in turn, allow the quality requirements of the finish to be met, which vary depending on the leather article manufactured. The main objective of the study is to minimize the content of VOCs in the different aliphatic polyurethanes synthesized in a pilot-scale reactor, making small modifications to the synthesis formulations. The synthesis route developed is based on the preparation of polymers of ionomeric polyurethanes and their subsequent dispersion in water. In the synthesis processes developed, the content of coalescing solvents and neutralizing agents, which directly contribute to the concentration of VOCs of the urethane polymers, is eliminated and / or minimized as much as possible. The new urethane-based polymers obtained have been analyzed according to the parameters of pH, viscosity, density and percentage of solids in the resin. Likewise, organoleptic tests (color, transparency, hardness, touch and tacking) and physical tests (tensile strength, water absorption, hardness and color change at 100°C for 24 hours) have been carried out on the film corresponding to each synthesized polyurethane resin. These products will be introduced in finishing formulations designed to obtain high-performance upholstery and automotive leather with minimal impact in terms of VOC content at the pilot level. Tests of fastness and physical resistance have been carried out to evaluate the performance of these leathers.