Browsing Articles publicats (Grup de Recerca en Malherbologia i Ecologia Vegetal) by Author "Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara"
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- ItemOpen AccessCover crops terminated with roller-crimper to manage Cynodon dactylon and other weeds in vineyards(John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2023) Cabrera Pérez, Carlos; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Català, Bruna; Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara; Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiUsing cover crops in organic vineyards can provide many advantages, including weed suppression. However, their effectiveness may depend on the weed community, the cover crop species and the termination method. The most common practice for cover crop termination is shredding, but rapid residue decomposition can allow noxious species like Cynodon dactylon to proliferate during summer and compete with the vines. The use of roller-crimpers as an alternative method can be effective in some cropping systems, but no studies have focused on their use in the inter-row of vineyards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of seven cover crops (spontaneous, Avena strigosa, Hordeum vulgare, Lolium multiflorum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Sinapis alba and X Triticosecale) and two termination methods (shredding or roller-crimper) in managing C. dactylon during summer. RESULTS: In 2020, rolled A. strigosa, P. tanacetifolia and the spontaneous flora limited the coverage of C. dactylon more than shredding (increases of 3% and 18% in C. dactylon cover from July to September in rolled and shredded cover crops, respectively), while in 2021, rolling was better than shredding for all cover crop species in September (5% and 18% increases, respectively). CONCLUSION: Roller-crimping cover crops was an effective method to control C. dactylon in vineyard inter-rows but it did not consistently work for all cover crops in both years. Our study is one of the first to test the efficacy of roller-crimpers to manage summer weeds in vineyards. © 2023 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
- ItemOpen AccessHarvester ant nest distribution depends on soil disturbance regime(Elsevier, 2018-09-17) Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara; Torra Farré, Joel; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Comas Rodríguez, CarlesNest densities of harvester ants (Messor barbarus) are high in rain-fed cereal fields in north-eastern Spain where the ants remove large quantities of seeds, contributing to reductions in weed populations. The distribution of harvester ant nests within a field can influence the effectiveness of ants as weed seed predators because areas with low ant nest density have lower weed seed removal rates. Tillage can disturb or even kill ant colonies and may be an important factor explaining the distribution of nests within fields. During the summers of 2011 - 2013, the number of nests in a 50 x 50 m area in 4 tilled and 3 no-till fields were counted. Tilled fields were disturbed twice a year, in November before cereal seeding and in July, after cereal harvest, whereas no-till fields had no soil disturbance. Ant nests were evenly spaced in no-till fields whereas nests were randomly distributed in tilled fields. Our results provide evidence that no-till in cereal fields promotes a more even distribution of M. barbarus nests, which should result in higher and more regular levels of weed seed predation across the field.
- ItemOpen AccessReviewing research priorities in weed ecology, evolution and management: a horizon scan(Wiley, 2018) Neve, P.; Barney, J. N.; Buckley, Y.; Cousens, R. D.; Graham, S.; Jordan, N. R.; Lawton-Rauh, A.; Liebman, M.; Mesgaran, M. B.; Schut, M.; Shaw, J.; Storkey, J.; Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara; Baucom, R. S.; Chalak, M.; Childs, D. Z.; Christensen, S.; Eizenberg, H.; Fernandez Quintanilla, C.; French, K.; Marsch, M.; Heijting, S.; Harrison, L.; Loddo, D.; Macel, M.; Maczey, N.; Merotto, A.; Mortensen, D.; Necajeva, J.; Peltzer, D. A.; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Renton, M.; Riemens, M.; Sonderskov, M.; Williams, M.Weedy plants pose a major threat to food security, biodiversity, ecosystem services and consequently to human health and wellbeing. However, many currently used weed management approaches are increasingly unsustainable. To address this knowledge and practice gap, in June 2014, 35 weed and invasion ecologists, weed scientists, evolutionary biologists and social scientists convened a workshop to explore current and future perspectives and approaches in weed ecology and management. A horizon scanning exercise ranked a list of 124 pre‐submitted questions to identify a priority list of 30 questions. These questions are discussed under seven themed headings that represent areas for renewed and emerging focus for the disciplines of weed research and practice. The themed areas considered the need for transdisciplinarity, increased adoption of integrated weed management and agroecological approaches, better understanding of weed evolution, climate change, weed invasiveness and finally, disciplinary challenges for weed science. Almost all the challenges identified rested on the need for continued efforts to diversify and integrate agroecological, socio‐economic and technological approaches in weed management. These challenges are not newly conceived, though their continued prominence as research priorities highlights an ongoing intransigence that must be addressed through a more system‐oriented and transdisciplinary research agenda that seeks an embedded integration of public and private research approaches. This horizon scanning exercise thus set out the building blocks needed for future weed management research and practice; however, the challenge ahead is to identify effective ways in which sufficient research and implementation efforts can be directed towards these needs.
- ItemOpen AccessSpatial and temporal stability of weed patches in cereal fields under direct drilling and harrow tillage(MDPI, 2020-03-25) Izquierdo i Figarola, Jordi; Milne, Alice; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Torra Farré, Joel; Webster, R. (Richard); Baraibar Padró, BàrbaraThe adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) techniques by farmers is changing the dynamics of weed communities in cereal fields and so potentially their spatial distribution. These changes can challenge the use of site-specific weed control, which is based on the accurate location of weed patches for spraying. We studied the effect of two types of CA (direct drilling and harrow-tilled to 20 cm) on weed patches in a three-year survey in four direct-drilled and three harrow-tilled commercial fields in Catalonia (North-eastern Spain). The area of the ground covered by weeds (hereafter called “weed cover”) was estimated at 96 to 122 points measured in each year in each field, in 50 cm × 50 cm quadrats placed in a 10 m × 10 m grid in spring. Bromus diandrus, Lolium rigidum, and Papaver rhoeas were the main weed species. The weed cover and degree of aggregation for all species varied both between and within fields, regardless of the kind of tillage. Under both forms of soil management all three were aggregated in elongated patterns in the direction of traffic. Bromus was generally more aggregated than Lolium, and both were more aggregated than Papaver. Patches were stable over time for only two harrow-tilled fields with Lolium and one direct-drilled field with Bromus, but not in the other fields. Spatial stability of the weeds was more pronounced in the direction of traffic. Herbicide applications, crop rotation, and traffic seem to affect weed populations strongly within fields, regardless of the soil management. We conclude that site-specific herbicides can be applied to control these species because they are aggregated, although the patches would have to be identified afresh in each season.
- ItemOpen AccessWeed seed fate during summer fallow: The importance of seed predation and seed burial(Weed Science Society of America, 2017) Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara; Canadell, Claudia; Torra Farré, Joel; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiMaximizing weed seed exposure to seed predators by delaying post-harvest tillage has been suggested as a way to increase weed seed loss to predation in arable fields. However, in some areas of northeastern Spain, fields are still tilled promptly after cereal harvest. Tillage usually places seeds in a safer environment compared to the soil surface, but it can also increase seed mortality through seed decay and fatal germination. By burying the seeds, tillage also prevents weed seed predation. Weed seed fate in a tilled vs. a no-till environment was investigated during the summer fallow months in three cereal fields in semi-arid northeastern Spain. Rigid ryegrass and catchweed bedstraw seeds were used. Predation rates were measured in a no-till area within each field in 48-h periods every 3 wk, and long-term predation rates were estimated. Fate of buried seeds was measured by burying 20 nylon bags with 30 seeds of each weed species from July to September at a depth of 6 cm in a tilled area contiguous to the no-till area. Predation rates over the entire summer were 62% and 49% for rigid ryegrass and catchweed bedstraw, respectively. High availability of crop seeds (preferred by ants) on the soil surface may have decreased predation of weed seeds early in the season. Seed loss due to burial was 54% and 33% for rigid ryegrass and catchweed bedstraw, respectively. Unusual above-average precipitation probably prompted higher than normal weed germination rates (fatal germination) in some fields, and thus led to higher seed mortality rates compared with an average year. These results suggest that leaving the fields untilled after harvest may be the optimum strategy to reduce inputs to the weed seedbank during the summer fallow period in semi-arid systems.