Mycotoxins: presence and stability during processing of cereal based food
Vidal Corominas, Arnau
Universitat de Lleida. Departament de Tecnologia d'Aliments
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Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate various agricultural commodities either before harvest or under post-harvest conditions. The most important producing genera are Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Mycotoxins can be present in a wide range of products and their intake is of concern because they can produce a wide range of harmful effects to human and animal. Cereal products represent one of the main sources of exposure to mycotoxins. Several mycotoxins have been identified up to the present, but those of special interest in food and feed safety are: aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), fumonisins (Fbs), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin, trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and nivalenol), and zearalenone (ZEN). However, unaltered mycotoxins might not be the only threat for health consumers, because they can be present in conjugated forms which cannot be detected in the routinary mycotoxins analysis, but they can become as dangerous as parent mycotoxins. The objectives of this thesis were determine the presence of some mycotoxins in cereal products, study the stability of them during the food process and assess the mycotoxin exposure. To reach these aims different studies have been done. Firstly, cereals and cereal based food commercial samples have been analysed to study the presence of aflatoxins (Afs), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), ZEN, OTA and some of them conjugated mycotoxins. Bread making and pasta making processes have been deeply studied and some factors have been evaluated to observe the stability of mycotoxins. Mycotoxins exposure has been assessed through two different methods: 1) the combination of contamination data with consumption data and 2) using biomarkers.
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